Monday, August 3, 2020
FAQ Brochure COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY - SIPA Admissions Blog Our Web site is obviously the best resource to use when researching questions you might have about our MIA and MPA programs, however each year we publish a small brochure that highlights the most frequent questions asked of us. Questions like: What is the make up of the SIPA student population? What kinds of employers do SIPA graduates work for? What are the core requirements for an MIA/MPA degree? What are the fields of study available at SIPA? These questions, and many more, are answered in a brochure that you may view by clicking here. The document is a PDF and you also have the option of saving it to your computer.
Saturday, May 23, 2020
Great authors use literary elements to develop a message. William ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s play, Ã¢â¬Å"MacbethÃ¢â¬ , tells a tale about a man who desires to rule the country of Scotland as king. With three witches that tell him his future, Macbeth realizes that his life would be better off as king, but in order to seize the throne, he has to kill the current king. After motivation from his wife to kill the king, MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s life follows a series of events and actions that eventually lead to his death. Shakespeare uses characterization, conflict, and authorÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose through Ã¢â¬Å"MacbethÃ¢â¬ to convey to others that their worst enemy can potentially be themselves through the tragic flaw of overconfidence. Through ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s use of characterization, he portraysÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Later on, Macbeth pleads the three witches to tell him whether or not Macduff will threaten his reign. Desperate to secure his seat as king, Macbeth wants to Ã¢â¬Å"make assurance double sure, and take a bond of fateÃ¢â¬ (Shakespeare, IV, i, 83-83). Even though Macduff will most likely not expose Macbeth, Macbeth wants to make it certain that he will remain king. Shakespeare characterizes Macbeth as a man who uses ambition to carry out his actions by making him take desperate measures to secure his throne. As the play develops, Shakespeare purposely transforms Macbeth as someone who requires motivation to take action into a man who makes his own decisions to take aggressive steps in order to remain in control. Shakespeare uses conflict of a high office to demonstrate how desire for power can lead to the downfall of a person. Once Macbeth holds power as king, he realizes how he can live a life full of extravagance. Obsessed with the idea of gaining more power, Macbeth wants to ensure his kingship. Afraid of potentially losing his power, he feels the need to kill all possible enemies, such as Banquo. Macbeth knows that he Ã¢â¬Å"could with barefaced power sweep him from my sightÃ¢â¬ (Shakespeare, III, ii, 118-119). With this new power as king that Macbeth possesses, he now believes that he can get away with not following the laws.Show MoreRelated Literary Devices Used In Macbeth Essay example911 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesLiterary Devices used in Macbeth Imagine how dull a Shakespearean play would be without the ingenious literary devices and techniques that contribute so much to the fulfillment of its reader or viewer. Macbeth, by William Shakespeare, is a tragedy that combines fact and legend to tell the story of an eleventh century king. Shakespeare uses numerous types of literary techniques to make this tragic play more appealing. Three literary devices that Shakespeare uses to make Macbeth more interestingRead MoreMacbeth And Macbeth1274 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe purpose if this essay is to prove that the theme in the two contrasting literary works of Twilight saga: eclipse by Stephenie Meyer and Macbeth by William Shakespeare are alike. The theme of destruction being inevitable in both literary pieces are the same through the element of symbolism used to connect and foreshadow events in each piece. Although the plot for each novel differs, the twin methods of symbolism they utilize evidently leads to inevitable destruction and deserve further examinationRead MoreMacbeth Explication Essay924 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMatt Cuyler 12/17/17 F Block Macbeth Explication The Ã¢â¬Å"Tragedy of MacbethÃ¢â¬ by William Shakespeare tells a tale of deceit, murder, and ambition, beginning with a cutthroat rise to power, followed by calamitous downfall. At the start of the play, Macbeth is a brave and loyal captain in King DuncanÃ¢â¬â¢s army, but after three witches prophesize that he himself will become the king of Scotland, and that those born of a friend, Banquo, will be king after him, Macbeth is overtaken by ambition and gluttonyRead MoreTheme Of Ambition In Macbeth876 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages17th century play Macbeth, is a timeless tale of fate, power, and the consequences of ambition. Despite vastly different interpretations across the centuries due to different cultural and historical contexts, the story remains powerful and relevant today because of its universal themes. Since the play was essentially written for King James I, Shakespeare heavily reinforces the kingÃ¢â¬â¢s own beliefs and values. Although we do not follow these doctrines in the present day, the literary techniques used throughoutRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare Remains A Powerful Literary Force To1091 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesWilliam Shakespeare remains a powerful literary force to this day, and few of Shakespeare s works are as well-known as Macbeth. The play s epic tale of ambition and greed never fails to captivate audiences. The major themes of this quintessential work are hackneyed in the world of literary criticism: the role of ambition in Macbeth s demise, the role of spirits and witches in carrying out evil, the corrupting of human morals, and many other similar themes. However, another equally important themeRead MoreTheme Of Ambition In Macbeth915 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesand its ramifications are extensively portrayed within William ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s tragedy; Macbeth. Within this play, ambition is portrayed as a corrupting and unquenchable force through the main concepts of mental imbalance, supernatural behaviors and betrayal. The consuming desires o f Macbeth and their repercussions are vividly enhanced through the use of various expressive literary techniques. Ultimately, Macbeth is a play that explores and reiterates the tragic and pestilent nature of unreasoned aspirationsRead More Macbeth vs Scotland, PA Essay1114 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Macbeth: The thin line between tragedy and dark humor. William ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Macbeth has always been considered one of the literary worlds most celebrated tragedies. It is arguably the darkest and most gruesome of his plays. The protagonist, Macbeth, is the poster child for tragic hero, Ã¢â¬Å"a literary character who makes an error of judgment or has a fatal flaw that, combined with fate and external forces, brings on a tragedyÃ¢â¬ (www.dictionary.com). And until recently we were satisfied with thatÃ¢â¬ ¦Read MoreWilliam Shakespeare Has Remained A Powerful Literary Force1088 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesWilliam Shakespeare has remained a powerful literary force to this day, and few of his works are as well known as Macbeth. The play s epic tale of ambition and greed never fails to captivate audiences. The major themes of this quintessential work are hackneyed in the world of literary criticism: the role of ambition in Macbeth s demise, the role of spirits and witches in carrying out evil, the corrupting of human morals, and many oth er similar themes. However, another equally important theme isRead MoreThe Importance Of Literary Elements In Literature1180 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagescommon literary elements to help us read into a story beyond the text. From the first independent book we read to short stories we read together in class, we have all improved drastically as writers. The first thing we did in starting our English ten honors course was to pick an independent book to read over the summer. I picked The Da Vinci Code written by Dan Brown. Our assignment for this was to name three literary elements the author used well. I said that the best used literary elements used inRead MoreDirecting Act 3 Scene 4 of William Shakespeares Macbeth Essay1053 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDirecting Act 3 Scene 4 of William Shakespeares Macbeth It is extremely important that an author is able to manipulate a readers feelings towards a character in literary pieces; this is achieved by William Shakespeare. Shakespeare incorporates the use of imagery throughout the play; animals, blood, clothing and weather are some of the main components used as symbols. Literary elements such as symbolism are used for example the owl or falcon which when the play was
Monday, May 11, 2020
WELDING PROCESS Overview: It is defined as a process of joining two pieces of metals by heating the metal at high temperature which results in softening or melting of metals. There are various other ways of welding, they are as follows: Ã¢â¬ ¢ With or without application of pressure. Ã¢â¬ ¢ With or without the use of filling metals (Melting point is 800Ã º F) There is a tremendous progress in recent times over the new methods, applications and systems for welding. HISTORY OF METAL WORKING: This processes are practiced since the humans began to found that they could shape rocks by chipping them with other rocks. The first metal which were used by early human beings was copper that is Ductile (It can be easily bend or drawn, hammered). The welding technology began 3000 years ago in Egypt (4000 B.C and USA before 2000 B.C). The Old Testaments which were recovered from the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s crust reflects the use of Forged metals, bronze and iron metals. In between 3000 and 2000 B.C Bronze metal was developed and Iron came into existence several thousand years after the invention of copper. Philistine recovered four iron furnaces of 1300 B.C this was the same metals used in production of swords, chisels, daggers and spearheads. Egyptian began making iron tools during 900 to 850 B.C, they replaced usage of bronze in various manufacturing applications with iron after 800 B.C. INTRODUCTION: Welding is a process of joining two different materials, the large bulk of materials which are welded togetherShow MoreRelatedThe Military Sector Of The Marine Corps1734 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesexploitation is a human endeavor and until unmanned technologies take over completely, is it not the Marines using the technologies that are the assets? In the civilian sector, experience is often necessary in most fields; however, machining and welding are lifetime professions in which experience is highly sought after. This is because they are both a craft, requiring dexterity and an artistic skill that is inherent when fabricating or reverse engineering parts. These crafts can only be master withRead MoreHow Technology Enters The Picture1729 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesour leadership style. The Marine CorpsÃ¢â¬â¢ continuous improvement process tell us that it is both an opportunity and an obligation and it is the responsibility of Marine leaders and supervisors at all levels to bring good ideas t o the surface and support their implementation (MCO 5220.12, para 1.2). As we look for technology and tools to innovate, one untapped resource that the Marine Corps has yet to maximize is the machining and welding capabilities, which reside mostly in our Ground Ordnance VehicleRead MoreTheme Of The Book By Alex Rogo1505 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesTheme of the book: As the name of the book mentions Ã¢â¬Å"Goal: ongoing improvementÃ¢â¬ but it just does not explain the goal and ongoing process to improve the system but also talks about the theory of constraints. Constraints which we face in real life situation. The main character in the book is Alex Rogo who is the manager of manufacturing plant. His plant is one of the few plants which company operates. AlexÃ¢â¬â¢s plant was not making enough money to sustain on its own. Orders were getting delayed oftenRead MorePokemon and the Steel Industry1115 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesenough fuel to smelt iron in the next century, and abrasive water cutters are not innovating since their introduction. In the recent wake of these events an unlikely source has been uncovered to help aid these problems and that source is the math and physics of pokemon. Pokemon is a franchise of turn based RPG games in which creatures with many crazy features fight each other for glory. Over the years pokemon has been getting c razy with what these creatures are based on and some designs and descriptionsRead MoreWhat A Railgun Is It Functions, And Why It Was Created2443 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesThis research paper will show and illustrate the basics of what a railgun is, how it functions, and why it was created. From there, it will further explicitly explain some of electromagnetics and physics that dictate the machine and its operation. Finally, a few of the arduous problems as well as what impact the railgun might have in our future is explained. I. Introduction By definition, a railgun is Ã¢â¬Å"a weapon consisting of a pair of parallel conductive rails, using a magnetic field and electricRead MoreEssay on Ford and Flexible Manufacturing1093 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages The automotive industry is a highly competitive market where brand loyalty is only as strong as the latest gizmo and horsepower upgrade. The automotive assembly process, perfected by Henry Ford, was based on the simple principle that Ã¢â¬Å"customers can order a Model T in any color they wanted as long as it was black.Ã¢â¬ After the 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s the market witnessed new entrants with unheard of automobile features that ended FordÃ¢â¬â¢s golden age. New automakers such as Buick, Chrysler, and Oldsmobile offered customersRead MoreManufacturing Engineering : The Industrial Revolution1474 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThere was no particular specialist in production control, manufacturing engineering, industrial engineering, and quality control. However, as the manufacturing company an d factories got larger and more complex, the supervisors could not manage the process nor did they have sufficient knowledge to handle tooling, planning or material control. Consequently, there was an augmented effort for expertise in engineers, and technical training to facilitate the production of planning, tools, as well as, processesRead MoreAn Introduction Of Navajo Constellations1358 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesexisting in a non-static and constantly regenerating process. Every human action is considered Cosmic and Ã¢â¬Å"affects the web of universal relationshipÃ¢â¬ similar to the principle of non-locality in quantum physics. They believed that light created the origins of life and gave brith to the evolutionary process. This shows that the NavajoÃ¢â¬â¢s belief system is a mixture of biological fact and supernatural phenomena as they do believe in the evolutionary process but in a more spiritual way than they common DarwinianRead MoreWbut Syllabus 1st Sem11442 Words Ã |Ã 4 6 PagesHours/Week L 2 3 3 3 3 0 0 1 T 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 P 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 3 Total 2 4 4 4 4 18 3 3 4 10 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 2 4 32 Credit Points C. 9 10 Chemistry -1 (Gr-B) / Physics Ã¢â¬â 1 (Gr-A) Mathematics-1 Basic Electrical Electronic Engineering Ã¢â¬â 1 (GrA+GrB) ME101 Engg. Mechanics Total of Theory PRACTICAL PH191/ Chemistry -1 (Gr-B)/ CH191 Physics Ã¢â¬â 1 (Gr-A) ES191 Basic Electrical Electronic Engineering -1 ME191 Engg Drawing Computer Graphics (Gr-B) /192 / Workshop Practice (Gr-A) Total of Practical SESSIONALRead MoreThe Development of Science in Ukraine, Tenses and Voices.2520 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagesmicrobiology (D. Zabolotny), biology (0. Bohomolets), chemistry (L. Pysar/hcvsky), electrical welding and bridge-building (Ye. Paton), physics (M. Boholiubov), cybernetics (V. Glushkov), space engineering (M. Yanhel), etc. Ukrainian scientists and scholars can boast major achievements, such as the artificial nuclear reaction to split the lithium nucleus; production of heavy water; a procedure for automatically welding lank bodies; the Europes first computer; new areas pioneered in metallurgy: electric metallurgy
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
string(68) " care about these residual duties, the whole society may go down i\." Introduction: Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is always an on-going issue that companies have to cope with. What are the responsibilities that companies should take other than the maximization of return to shareholders and by taking such responsibilities, how it may affect the operation of the firms as well as how effectively such actions could have on the society. There have been two main positions on the CSR issue. We will write a custom essay sample on Ethical Viewpoint or any similar topic only for you Order Now The first is the Friedmanian one stating that Ã¢â¬Å"there is one and only one social responsibility of business Ã¢â¬â to use its resources and engage in activities designed to increase its profits so long as it stays within the rules of the gamesÃ¢â¬ (published in the book Ã¢â¬Å"Capitalism and FreedomÃ¢â¬ ). The other view is that companies can and should deviate from the goal of maximizing profit to take others responsibilities that help to promote the total welfare of the whole society. I will first discuss these two viewpoints and give my opinions on such reasons then, finally, draw up my conclusion on CSR. Discussion of the Friedman point of view: From the Friedman viewpoint, businessmen who seriously take the CRS such as fighting poverty, avoiding pollutionÃ¢â¬ ¦ are Ã¢â¬Å"unwitting puppets of the intellectual forces that have been undermining the basis of a free societyÃ¢â¬ . He stated that the responsibilities of a company rest mostly in hand of the sole proprietors or the corporate executives. However, while sole proprietors are individuals i. e. they can act on their own behave, for corporate executives, there are several reasons that restrict them from exercise any other responsibilities than maximizing the return to shareholders Ã¢â¬â owners of the company i. . usually maximizing the profit. The first reason is that in a private-property system, the executive is an employee of the shareholders, which means that he voluntarily and personally agrees to work under the direction and supervision of the shareholders in return for salary or other remunerations. Therefore, the executive has to commit with the shareholder sÃ¢â¬â¢ interest, which is usually maximizing the profit. In some cases where the interest of the shareholders is not economic one than the work of executive may vary but it must be in line with the shareholdersÃ¢â¬â¢ interest. This is also enhanced by law that the shareholders have the right to appoint or dismiss the executive. Therefore, if he cannot comply with the shareholdersÃ¢â¬â¢ interest, he can be fired, which, from a personal point of view, there is no good for him to conduct CSR on behave of the company. In short, an executive of a firm, who has a huge impact on how the firm acts, is bound by the responsibility to the interest of the shareholders. This also implies that the executive cannot deploy resources that are not owned by himself to other social usages i. e. e cannot lower the price to stop inflation, he cannot make expenses for environmental practices beyond the legislation, he cannot give the earnings of the company to charity organizations. Because by doing so, he indirectly harms the interests of the owners of those resources. It seems that the CSR does not rest on the executives but rather on the owner of the company. Therefore, it may not suitable to discuss the role of the executi ve in conducting CSR but the decisions and interest of owners are what matter here. It is not affected whether the firm wants to conduct CSR or not but whether the owners want to take such responsibilities. The question here is that whether each of us (as individuals) should sacrifice our personal interests for the common good. The second reason is that when firms do CSR, it violates the efficient division of labour in the society. Doing social responsibilities on behave of the company is the same as redistributing resources in the society, a process which is currently carried by taxation system. This raises political questions in two levels: principle and consequences. On the grounds of principle aspect, the taxation is done by the government. There are structures, mechanism to determine who will be taxed, the tax level, and how the tax money should be used. The whole process is to correct market failures and make sure a fair and balanced distribution of resources for the society, in the name of the greater good. By doing CSR, the executive has taken the tax function of government. He decides to tax shareholders, employees, customersÃ¢â¬ ¦, how much to tax (how much to spend on CSR) and how should the money is used, which makes him a civil servant, not the employee of the shareholders anymore. For the consequences aspect, it is doubted that a single act of an executive can surely lead to a positive effect on the whole society. Such a reduction in price can really slow down the inflation (or just make the whole industry outputs decreases since other firms must lower their prices also to compete, and therefore, creates deficit for the economy). Spending too much on environmental practice beyond legislation may increase price and draw the company out of business because of competition. Free-market mechanism works based on the assumption that Ã¢â¬Å"It is not from the benevolence of the butcher, the brewer, or the baker, that we expect our dinner, but from their regard to their own interestÃ¢â¬ (Adam Smith Ã¢â¬â The Wealth Of Nations, Book I, Chapter II, pp. 26-7, para. 12). Therefore, by deviating from self-interest, a firm who heavily does CSR may be forced out of the market. However, Friedman has left out the case of default on duty of agent i. e. what if the government cannot fulfill its responsibilities as correcting market failures and redistributing resources. If these duties are not carried out, it then can cause harm to the whole society. We can see there is a dilemma here. If the companies take those duties, its main duty will be less efficient and cannot stand in the market. On the other hand, if it does not care about these residual duties, the whole society may go down i. You read "Ethical Viewpoint" in category "Papers" e. the economic cake is shrinking. Let me summarize the reasons of the Friedmanian viewpoint on why company should not conduct CSR: 1. The binding relationship between owners and executives does not allow the executives to deviate the goal of the company from maximizing returns to owners 2. Doing CSR is considered as taxation on shareholders or employees, or customers, which, in a democratic world, is a job of government. 3. Under the free-market mechanism, extra expenses arose from CSR can finally draw the company out of business All in all, the Friedmanian article produces a very strict and straight point the responsibility of companies: to maximize the return of owners. It makes companies seem like soulless machines designed to do nothing than maximizing ownersÃ¢â¬â¢ interest. However, the idea is derived from the position of an executive, who does not have real power on decision making. Moreover, this model will only work in such a condition where the government fulfills its responsibility and the model also assumes that there is only one company is doing CSR (if others do not also do CSR then unfair competition may happen). Discussion of the ethical point of view: In contrast to the viewpoint which is supported by the Friedman viewpoint presented above and the belief that CSR and profit go together that the only responsibility of companies is to maximize profit (in general) and not to do real CSR Ã¢â¬â companies may conduct CSR if it helps to increase profit i. . CSR as a tool for profit maximization, not the true goal -, there may be good reasons for firm to deviate from maximizing profit. Firstly, I will discuss on how the Friedman viewpoint is refuted and then the latter viewpoint. Counter Friedman viewpoint From the three main reasons of Friedman viewpoint above, there are counter reasons to refute them: 1. There is a contract that binds the executive respon sibility to the interest of the owners: Such a contract does not simply release the involved parties from others duties to other agents i. . reduce or cancel their duties to the rest of the society. This also implied a fact that executives have a special duty to the owners, which will be discussed later 2. The effective division of labour between companies and government (Ã¢â¬Å"taxation aspectÃ¢â¬ as an example): There are two reasons to refute this term. First, it is not the action of the executive that should be considered in this case but whether the owners would give up some of their benefits to promote other ends i. e. efute the notion that executives doing CSR as a taxation agent. Secondly, there are cases when the government cannot or not willing to do its duty, therefore, makes the whole model of ideal division of labour collapse. On the second reason, the author gives an example of Third World countries where governments are usually fail to fulfill their duties. However , this example is not so persuasive since in such countries, not only the governments default on their duties but other agents, especially customers, do not value the CSR. Therefore, if a company assumes to take the residuals value, it will lose its competitiveness and being drawn out of business. 3. The free-market competition does not allow firms to do CSR: it is reasoned that if customers, employers, shareholders, government value the CSR activities of the firm then CSR will not push a firm out of business but conversely, can even help the firm grow. The article also criticizes the Friedman viewpoint by refute the notion that Ã¢â¬Å"Firm has a special duty to its owners and it should takes preference over duties to othersÃ¢â¬ . A special duty may be formed: when agents have a certain kind of relation to each other (the relation approach) or the universalistic approach that everyone has responsibilities to everyone else, but these general duties can be carried out more effectively if each agent is assigned special duties, which it does best, towards a limited group. For the relation approach, the firm and the owners should have at least one of three kinds of traditions: voluntarist tradition, the mutual benefit tradition or the communitarian tradition. It seems that there is a voluntary tradition existing between the firm and the owners but it does not mean that each agent can pursue their own goal at all costs since doing so, it may harm the voluntariness of other parties. Therefore, a voluntarist tradition also restricts the profit maximization. Based on the communitarian tradition, agents are partly defined by its relationships and various rights. Therefore, reducing the commitment to a group is the same as changing the agentÃ¢â¬â¢s personality and that special duties should only arise from relationships that are key to the agentÃ¢â¬â¢s identity. Miller has created some Ã¢â¬Å"criteriaÃ¢â¬ for such relationships: (1) they belong together, (2) their association is neither transitory nor instrumental, (3) their community has distinctive characteristic, (4) there is loyalty in the sense of willingness to sacrifice personal gain to advance in the interests of the company. The relation between the firm and owners has failed heavily on criteria (2) and (4) and therefore, it fails within the communitarian framework. However, it is worth questioning here about the criteria. In such a fast changing world, especially the explosion of virtual world Ã¢â¬â the Internet, communities are formed, which can satisfy all of the above criteria (for example, the open source community, who develop computer programs and peer production together without cost to the public usages) but leave no or very little traits (identity) on the parties. As the grounds for mutual benefit traditions, it is true that there is a mutual benefit tradition between firm and owners. However, it involves far more parties, who can be customers, business partners, governmentÃ¢â¬ ¦ Therefore, the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s responsibilities cannot be limited only to the owners. Nevertheless, if then, can and should the company try to satisfy all of its stakeholders. This leads us to the universalistic approach, whether the firm should have special duty towards a group (owners), which it can do most effectively. The universalistic approach is built on the assumption that agents who are assigned special duties can carry out the duties, which means that governments can effectively correct market failures and redistribute income. In practice, this is not always the case; and when the special duties cannot be done, they become the residual responsibilities of all. And it is worth notice here that division of duties is just a tool to promote the general duties. Therefore, when the government fails to perform its duty, the company should deviate from its special duty (maximize profit) and try to cover the residual duties. However, there are 2 problems with this reasoning. First of all, how can we measure if an agent has successfully performed its duty i. e. f the government has done a good job or not? Second, the residual responsibilities are rested on the entire society, not only the business. Therefore, only when other agents also try to participate in solving the responsibilities, are the general duties fulfilled. It helps to avoid the disadvantages to companies when they do CSR as mentioned in the 3rd reason of Friedman viewpoint. Only when the customers and other companies take part in the process, does the company not face the fact of being out of business due to unfair competition. In all of the relationship traditions mentioned above, the special duties of firm to owners has failed on some and partly fulfilled some. As a conclusion, the special duty of companies to owners is restricted by the duties to other agents and it may be changed (deviate from profit maximization) if necessary. CSR and profits do not always go together: It is shown, by practiceÃ¢â¬â¢s investigation that CSR will not always lead to positive economic profit and there is a limit for CSR expending (to some point, the cost will be more than the benefit). However, there seems to be a lack of time variable here in the research. For example, if the company builds 10 or 100 hospital for the city, it does not lead to much different economic profit. However, if the company continues supporting 10 hospitals for 10 years then it can create a commitment between the company and the community, which then results in customersÃ¢â¬â¢ loyalty. The profit from CSR should not only be measured at a fixed moment but also spread through a period of time. All in all, the ethical point of view states that companies do not have special duty to only the owners but it must act in a way that can comprehend its other duties to different parties in the society and in order to do so, it may have to deviate from its ultimate goal i. e. maximizing profit. However, in contrast with the conditions for Friedman viewpoint, this assumption requires a condition where the government cannot fulfill its duty and other parties (competitors, customers, suppliersÃ¢â¬ ¦) must act in the same manner as the company (deviate from their own special duties if needed). Conclusion: Both articles provide very interesting opinions on if firms should take on CSR or not. While Friedman viewpoint, which based heavily on the assumption of private-property democracy and free-market mechanism, states that firms must only focus on one ultimate responsibility: maximize ownersÃ¢â¬â¢ return, the ethical viewpoint states that firms must also sacrifice its own self-interest i. e. profit in order to promote other ends for the society. I agree on the assumption that executives have a special duty against the owner and that efficient division of labour should be respected in normal cases. A company can never satisfy all the responsibilities it has towards all other parties equally or effectively. Only by dividing the general duties and assign them to subgroups, it makes sure they are done in the most effective way. Moreover, as an executive, if he or she tries to conduct CSR against the will of owners then the effect of such actions is neither material or long lasting since the owners, according to law, have the right to appoint and dismiss executives on their will. This assumption also implies that social responsibilities do not rest on firms but rather on individuals. It is not whether firms do CSR or not but if each of the owner wants to sacrifice their own interests for the common good. CSR, at its best understanding, involve the participation of the whole society i. e. companies do not stand alone is this field and so, should not be considered solely when debating on CSR issue. Other factors such as how the government does its duty and how customers, suppliersÃ¢â¬ ¦ value the CSR have huge impact on the fact that should companies conduct CSR. Free-market mechanism is a very strong force that as long as our society depends on it, we must comfort it. Only when the customersÃ¢â¬â¢ demand for such CSR value increases, does the companies do CSR. If this is not the case, companies are killing themselves. Therefore, no matter how intensive firms are on CSR issue, it will be immaterial and short-sighted if by doing so, threat the firms out of business. The debating question here is not about firms conducting CSR but about how society value CSR, which will then guide the behaviours of firms. In conclusion, in current situation under the force of free-market mechanism, firmsÃ¢â¬â¢ decisions are not the main forces that affect the CSR issues but how well other agents (especially government) fulfill their own duties and how society value CSR. The available solutions are that government must improve its performance (tighten the legislation, prevent corruption, protection for firms doing CSRÃ¢â¬ ¦) and the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s awareness of CSR value must be raised so that society will value CSR seriously (through education programs). Only then, can firms truly perform CSR without facing the dilemma of trade-off for economic profit, which is the main reason for firms to exist. All in all, for now, I agree to the statement of Milton Friedman that Ã¢â¬Å"responsibility is to conduct business in accordance with their (owners) desires, which generally will be to make as much money as possible while conforming to the basic rules of the society, both those embodied in law and those embodied in ethical customÃ¢â¬ . The question is how such Ã¢â¬Å"basic rulesÃ¢â¬ will drive the behaviours of companies. How to cite Ethical Viewpoint, Papers
Thursday, April 30, 2020
Problem Set Week Solutions Paper What is the implied price per share of this funding round? B. What will the value of the whole firm be after this investment (the post-money valuation)? Answer: a. After the funding round, the founders 8 million shares will represent ownership of the firm. To solve for the new total number of shares (TOTAL): 0. 80 TOTAL So TOTAL = shares, If the new total is 10 million shares, and the venture capitalist will end up with 20%, then the venture capitalist must buy 2 million shares. Given the investment of 51 million for 2 million shares, the implied price per share is $0. 0. B. After this investment, there will be 10 million shares outstanding, with a price of $0. 0 per share, so the post-money valuation is million. 2. Three years ago, you founded your own company. You invested $100,000 Of your money and received 5 million shares of Series A preferred stock. Since then, your company has been through three additional rounds Of financing. A. What is the pre-money valuation for the Series D funding round? B. What is the post-money valuation for the Series D funding round? C. Assuming that PU own only the Series A preferred stock (and that each share of all series of preferred stock is convertible into one share of common stock), what percentage f the firm do you own after the last funding round? A. Before the Series D funding round, there are 500,000 shares outstanding. Given a Series D funding price of $4. 00 per share, the pre-money valuation is (6, SOCIO) x SO,O/share = $26 million. H. After the funding round, there will be 500,000 shares outstanding, so the post-money valuation is x $4. 00,share c. You will own = 71. 4% of the firm after the last funding round. 3. Three years ago, you founded Outdoor Recreation, Inc. , a retailer specializing in the sale Of equipment and clothing for recreational activities such as camping, skiing, and hiking. So far, your company has gone through three funding rounds: Round Date Investor Shares Share Price (S) Series A Feb.. 2009 You 500,000 1. 00 Series B Gag. 2010 Angels Series C septet. 2011 Venture capital Currently, it is 2012 and you need to raise additional capital to expand your business. We will write a custom essay sample on Problem Set Week Solutions specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Problem Set Week Solutions specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Problem Set Week Solutions specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer You have decided to take your firm public through an PIP- You would like to issue an additional 6. 5 million new shares through this PIP. Assuming that your firm successfully completes its PIP, you forecast that 2012 net income Will be $7. 5 million. A. Your investment banker advises you that the prices of other cent Ipso have been set such that the PIE ratios based on 2012 forecasted earnings average 20. 0. Assuming that your PIP is set at a price that implies a similar multiple, what will your PIP price per share be? B. What percentage of the firm will you own after the PIP? . With a PIE ratio of 20. Xx, and 2012 earnings of $7. 5 million, the total value of the firm at the PIP should be: There are currently (500,000 ; 1,000, COO + = shares outstanding (before the PIP). At the PIP, the firm will issue an additional 6. 5 million shares, so there will be 10 million shares outstanding immediately after he PIP. With a total market value of $150 million, each share should be worth 5150/ 10 $ IS per share b. After the PIP, you will own 500,000 of the 10 million shares outstanding, or 5% of the firm. . Assume Voce, Inc. , has a current price of SO and will pay a 52 dividend in one year, and equity cost of capital is 15%. What price must you expect it to sell for right after paying the dividend in one year in order to justify its current price? We can solve the equation for the price Of the stock in one year given the current price of $50. 00, the $2 dividend, and the 15% cost of capital. At a current price of $50, we can expect Voce stock to sell for ASS. 50 immediately after the firm pays the dividend in one year.
Saturday, March 21, 2020
Learn How Many Total Electoral Votes There Are In the United States, the president and vice president are elected by the Electoral College rather than the popular vote of the people- and, as of April 2018, there are a total of 538 electoral votes. This system of indirect democracy was chosen by theÃ Founding FathersÃ as a compromise between allowing Congress to elect a president and giving potentially uninformed citizens a direct vote.Ã The history of how that number of electoral votes came to be and the number needed to elect a president is an interesting story. Electoral Votes Background Former U.S. Treasury SecretaryÃ Alexander HamiltonÃ wrote in Federalist (Paper) No. 68: Nothing was more to be desired than that every practicable obstacle should be opposed to cabal, intrigue, and corruption.Ã The Federalist Papers, authored by Hamilton,Ã James Madison, and John Jay, represented an attempt to convince theÃ states to ratify the Constitution. The framers of the Constitution, and many in leadership positions in the 1780s, feared the influence of theÃ unwashedÃ mob. They feared that, if allowed to directly elect the president, the general populace might foolishly vote for an unqualified president or even a despot- or theÃ masses might be undulyÃ influenced by foreign governmentsÃ when voting for a president. In essence, the Founding Fathers felt the masses could not be trusted. Hence, they created the Electoral College, where citizens of each state would vote for a slate of electors, who theoretically were pledged to then vote for a specific candidate. But, if circumstances warranted, the electors could be free to vote for a candidate other than the one to whom they were pledged. The Electoral College Today Today, each citizens vote indicates which electors he would like to have representÃ him during the Electoral College process. Each presidential ticket has a group of designated electors ready to respond should their party win the popular vote of the people during a presidential election, which occurs every four years in November. The number of electoral votes is derived by adding the number of senators (100), the number of members in the House of Representatives (435), and three additional votes for the District of Columbia. (The District of Columbia was awarded three electoral votes with the passage of the 23rd Amendment in 1961.) The total number of electors, then, adds up to 538 total votes. To win the presidency, a candidate needs more than 50 percent of the electoral votes. Half of 538 is 269. Therefore, a candidate needs 270 Electoral College votes to win. More About the Electoral College The total number of electoral votes does not vary from year to year because the number of members of the House of Representatives and the Senate does not change. Instead, every 10Ã years with the new census, the number of electors shifts from states that have lost population to states that have gained population. Though the number of electoral votes is fixed at 538, there are circumstances that can arise requiring special attention. There is a constitutional process that goes into effect in case of aÃ tie in the Electoral College.Most states use a winner-takes-all method, where the candidate who wins the states popular vote is awarded the states entire slate of electors. As of April 2018, Maine and Nebraska are the only states that do not use a winner-takes-all system.Because of the way electors are apportioned, the presidential candidate with the most votes by the citizenry does not always win the election and become president. This was the case withÃ Hillary Clinton, whoÃ won the popular vote by nearly 3 million ballotsÃ in the 2016 presidential election, butÃ Donald TrumpÃ became president because heÃ received 290 out of 538 electoral votes, 20 more than the 270 electoral votes he needed to win.
Wednesday, March 4, 2020
Business Studies Coursework Business Studies Coursework Business Studies Coursework Business studies coursework writing should start with the effective introduction presenting the reader to the topic, lead to well-developed and logically presented main points, and end with the relevant conclusion. Business studies coursework writing is not easy because in addition to following the academic standards of coursework writing, you must relate your writing to the real life examples. Sometimes, business studies coursework is to be presented in the form of the case study. Sometimes, you have a specific case to read and then provide answers to the questions on the case. Sometimes, you are required to conduct the research on the particular business issue and present your business studies coursework in the form of the report. There are many possible formats to follow, but the rules for successful business studies coursework writing are the same. If you need professional help with writing your business studies coursework, you may rely on our custom writing service and get a cus tom written coursework! Step 1: Choose the Business Studies Coursework Topic Do not think that having a general topic is enough to write a good coursework. The truth is that good business studies coursework are focused and narrow enough to exhibit your deep understanding of the issue. For example, if your teacher asks you write a business studies coursework about ethics at workplace, you should not try to cover all possible aspects of the topic. It would be much more effective to choose one aspect of workplace ethics (discrimination against female workers and the reaction of management to it, for example) to develop your writing. Of course, you need to ask your teacher about the specifics beforehand. It can be the case that you must cover the general topic of business ethics. Step 2: Include Evidence in your Business Studies Coursework It is of primary importance to support the ideas made in business studies coursework with factual reliable information. Rely on statistics, official reports, governmental publications, Harvard business case studies, etc. Here is the example of data to include in your coursework: It is estimated by Otto T. Mallery that government outlays in America have grown to about $900,000,000 a year, of which one-third or $300,000,000 might be set aside annually in accumulating a reserve for increased expenditures during periods of partial business collapse. The periods for reserve he concludes, are on the average about four years thus supplying a possible total of $1,200,000,000 public reserve fund to plump into the deepening trough of cyclical depression. Of this very tidy sum Mr. Mallery thinks two-thirds or $800,000,000 would normally be expended in wages. This, added to the non-reserve-year pay-roll of $600,000,000 offers a possible expenditure during one year when the effects of industrial depression become ominous-of $1,400,000,000 for direct employment. This would be of enormous benefit in avoiding acute distress. Step 3: Proofread your Business Studies Coursework This step appears to be evident but yet it is often ignored by the students. It is normal to make mistakes and mistype the words. However, it is unacceptable to submit business studies coursework without proofreading: It takes a lot of time and efforts to write a good business studies coursework while many students are not able to afford their time to coursework writing as there many other tasks to accomplish. We offer you an effective and working solution: custom coursework writing help! Our coursework writers are qualified to help you with writing and they will definitely follow all requirements. We deliver only custom coursework written from scratch and 100% original! If you need help with religious coursework writing or looking for paper editing help, our writers are always online to assist you with all types of assignments! Interesting posts: Political Science Thesis Parts of a Thesis Master Thesis Get Dissertation Help Dissertation Subjects